Original Project Objectives

To Develop New Electrically Conductive Polymers

In 2012 Dr Highgate and Jim Heathcote were joined by Nigel Spence, Finance Director. The team planned and then implemented a research programme to develop biocompatible, electrically conducting hydrophilic polymers which had the potential to be used in Bioelectronics. These materials could offer bi-directional neural control over prosthetics for injured soldiers.

Key Properties

Electrically conducting
Low Cost (hydrocarbon based)
Light weight + Flexible
Corrosion resistant

Commercial Development of Simple Hydrophilic Materials

Contact Lenses

Between 1968 and 1980 Dr Highgate developed the materials for extended wear contact lenses and his company became a major supplier of hydrophilic blanks and finished lenses to the UK market.

Commercial development of ionically conductive hydrophilic materials

In the 1990s Dr Highgate successfully modified the original 'contact lens' materials and added a further property of ionic conductivity. This is now a core technology for hydrogen fuel cells and electrolysers.

Commercial development of electrically conductive hydrophilic materials

The research programme to develop biocompatible electrically conductive hydrophilic polymers began in 2014.

This programme was expanded to include the additional property of optical transparency. The addition of this new optical property added the potential to make a contact lens with the ability to display the internet. The company was originally named and registered as Augmented Optics Ltd.

Throughout the research programme the materials exhibited very unusual electrical properties. In mid-2016 test-samples were sent to Professor David Fermin, Bristol Electrochemistry group, for independent analysis. He reported: “When tested in devices with simple carbon electrodes ……the devices were characterised by geometrical capacitances three or four orders of magnitude larger than the geometrical capacitances of carbon electrodes in conventional electrolyte solutions.”

“These outstanding electrochemical properties can be exploited in the development of high energy density supercapacitors….These performances can open a real prospect for commercial exploitation in the short term.”

  • Hydrophilic ionic site (IS).
  • Electrical site (ES) [SO3].
  • Bound water molecule.
  • Free water molecule.

Supercapacitor Opportunities


Conventional electrodes:

Geometrical area = apparent area of the electrode plates


Passive Nano-textured electrodes:

Geometrical area = N x apparent area of the electrode plates.

N = 100->1000

No electrochemical effects


Active Nano-textured electrodes:

Geometrical area = N x apparent area of the electrode plates.

N = 100->1000

Additional REDOX effect
The experimental tests indicate that these materials used as electrolytes can:

Transform the performance of type B supercaps using low cost Passive carbon electrodes

Maximise the performance of type C supercaps that use high cost Active REDOX electrodes

Evolution of Hydrophilic Materials

The company has established that these superdielectric materials could translate into game-changing, commercially viable products, offering a step change in performance compared to existing electrical energy storage technology. In June 2018, the first chemically stable, non-metallic pouch cell devices were built using industrially available electrode materials and containment systems.

Extremely Valuable Intellectual Property

Surrey & Bristol Universities validate technology, and
announce discovery of Superdielectric Materials December 2016

Superdielectrics’ mission is to develop high energy density, low cost, low environmental impact electrical energy storage devices that will help create a clean and sustainable global energy and transportation system.

This is now feasible due to the Company’s discovery of superdielectric materials working with scientific teams from the Universities of Bristol and Surrey. Bristol University has confirmed that our superdielectric materials have capacitance values 1,000-10,000 times higher than existing aqueous electrolytes in supercapacitors. A supercapacitor using these materials could hold many times the amount of energy of lithium ion batteries.

Sd Ltd’s Projected Energy Density Timeline

The discovery of superdielectric electrolyte materials implies that Moore’s Law may now be applied to energy density (doubling every 18 months). Currently, the estimated energy density of the company’s supercapacitors is 26Whr/kg. Internal projections estimate that this should increase to 50Whr/kg by the end of 2019, followed by a further doubling to 100 Whr/kg over the following 18 months. The Company’s internal research objective is to achieve 250Whr/kg within 5 years with further increases open-ended. We believe that the combination of cycle data and higher energy densities should translate into increased shareholder value through higher future potential license/joint venture fees.

Moore’s Law

Sd Ltd’s Projected Energy Density Timeline


25 Whr/kg

Supercapacitors, Stationary Energy Storage, Power Tools, Renewable Energy

Dec 2019

50 Whr/kg

Public Transport, Taxis, Delivery Vehicles, Hybrid Li-ion Autos, Tablets

Jun 2021

100 Whr/kg

Mobile Phones, General Transportation, Marine

Research objective

250 Whr/kg

Drones, Electric aircraft

Supercapacitor Advantages

  • Rapid recharging
  • Very long life
  • Safe
  • No rare elements
  • High cycle efficiency
  • Wide operating temperature range
Specifically for Sd Ltd’s supercapacitors:
  • No rare materials or conflict metals
  • No end of life recycling problems

Sd Ltd’s Cost Advantage

Environmental and Financial Cost advantages Raw materials

Rising Energy density = lower usage of raw materials

Target Energy densities Weight per Kwh
25 Whr/kg Current 40kg
50 Whr/kg Dec 2019 20kg
100Whr/kg June 2021 10kg
250Whr/kg 4kg